Familia Helotrephidae Esaki & China, 1927

Family HELOTREPHIDAE Esaki & China, 1927 - BB bugs

J.T. Polhemus

The family contains 16 genera and about 47 species, with a pantropical distribution. All species are thought to be predaceous on arthropods, but little is known of these inconspicuous insects. Species are found in both lentic and lotic habitats, in the latter usually in root tangles in quiet portions of streams. They overwinter as adults, hibernating in mud. Eggs are laid on aquatic vegetation. A few species are wing-dimorphic; the flightless forms are submacropterous with reduced hind wings.

World catalogue: Papáček & al., 1988; J.T. Polhemus, 1990a. Palaearctic catalogue: J.T. Polhemus, 1995i. Monographs: Esaki & China, 1928. Faunal reviews: China, 1935 (Old World; key). Biology: Miyamoto, 1952. Morphology: Papáček & al., 1990.